By Nora Hanke
Car-based winter raptor surveys have engaged a subset of HMANA members since at least the 1990s, and our database holds records for surveys that date back to the 2004-’05 season. The first surveys in our project were conducted in Pennsylvania and Illinois, each of which remains a stronghold for winter raptor survey participation. Our task is essential and unique as its scope is the whole North American continent. The Winter Raptor Survey committee envisages our winter counting will provoke questions and answers about the ecology of raptor species that remain in North America over our winter months and be used in research to direct conservation actions. This article reviews HMANA’s Winter Raptor Survey project, focusing on the 2019-20 season.